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Peptide Sciences Blog


The Research Effects of TB-500 on Tissue Growth

By Logan 2 months ago

TB-500 is also known as thymosin beta 4 (TB4). Thymosin Beta 4 has been found, in animal models, to play a central role in controlling the structure of cells. By improving cell structure, TB-500 is thought to aid in wound healing, improve cell responses to stress, and even help cells to live longer. Scientific animal research studies have shown that TB-500's role in regulating cell structure may eventually make it a leading therapeutic in wound healing, blood vessel repair, and even ocular (eye) repair.

IGF1 LR3 Information

By Carl 2 months ago

IGF1 LR3 (insulin-like growth factor-1 Long R3) is a non-glycosylated, recombinant polypeptide chain made up of 83 amino acids. IGF1 LR3 is the recombinant form of human IGF-1, and as such it contains the entire native amino acid sequence but with two major modifications: substitution of arginine (abbreviated R or arg) at position 3 with glutamic acid (abbreviated E or Glu) hence the label R3; and the extension of the N-terminus of the native sequence by a 13 amino-acid peptide hence the label long. The native form of a polypeptide refers to the naturally occurring amino acid sequence and the resultant conformational structure. The molecular weight of IGF1 LR3 as measured by Mass Spectrometry is 9.116 kD (kiloDaltons). A specifically designed protein expression system is utilized in the production of IGF1 LR3 in Escherichia Coli. Thereafter, chromatographic techniques are used to correctly fold and purify the IGF1 LR3 to the highly-active and functional IGF1 LR3 that can bind to human IGF-1R (insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor).

What is Thymosin Alpha-1

By Becka 2 months ago

Thymosin Alpha-1 is a biologically active peptide derived from prothymosin-alpha. Current hypotheses consider Thymosin Alpha-1 to be the main constituent of Thymosin Fraction-5, and as such it is considered to be the active component that restores the immune function in both athymic animals and animals with dysfunctional thymus glands. Thymosin Alpha-1 was among the first peptide isolates of Thymosin Fraction-5 to be sequenced and thereafter synthetically synthesized.

In humans, the PTMA gene encodes prothymosin-alpha, a 113 amino-acid polypeptide. Thymosin Alpha-1 is a 28 amino-acid fragment of prothymosin-alpha, and research has shown that this fragment derivative enhances the cell-mediated immune component of the human immune system. Its immune actions have enabled it to be used for treating viral infections such as Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C. It has also been incorporated into vaccines as an immune booster. Clinical studies have also shown that Thymosin Alpha-1 can be used to manage neoplasias since they upregulate cytotoxic T-cells which are involved in immune surveillance.

What is Adipotide?

By Carl 3 months ago

Adipotide is a peptidomimetic compound that has been shown to possess pro-apoptotic properties that do cause weight loss in rhesus monkeys and mice. Its sequence is CKGGRAKDC-GG-D(KLAKLAK)2. Studies have shown that its mode of action involves the selective apoptosis of blood vessels supplying the white adipose tissue. Adipotide causes such vessels to undergo atrophy (shrinkage) and eventually apoptosis (cell death), thus cutting off the blood supply to the fat cells. This results in ischemic injury, which is a lack of blood supply and oxygen to the fat cells. The effects are non-reversible, so the fat cells also undergo apoptosis or cell death.

Sermorelin, Sleep and the Brain

By Logan 3 months ago

Fifteen years ago, orexins were identified as central regulators of energy homeostasis. Research indicates that orexins are key modulators of the sleep-wake cycle and that these neuropeptides also affect feelings of satiety and hunger. Given their role in energy homeostasis, it was hypothesized that orexin levels are likely regulated, at least in part, by the growth hormone axis. Recent research supports this fact and suggests that growth hormone releasing hormone analogues, such as sermorelin, may be effective in treating conditions in which orexin release is dysfunctional (e.g. narcolepsy) [1].

Follistatin 344

By Logan 3 months ago

Follistatin 344 (and 315)

Follistatin, also called activin-binding protein, is found in nearly all tissues of vertebrate animals. Its primary function is to neutralize members of the TGF-β family, which play fundamental roles in everything from growth and development to energy homeostasis and immune system regulation. In particular, follistatin interacts with activin, which plays an important part in cell proliferation and cell death as well as in the immune response as it applies to wound repair1,2.

Follistatin 344 and 315 are engineered analogues of naturally occurring follistatin. Both are created by alternative splicing of the follistatin mRNA transcript. Scientific research in non-human primates as well as in mice have indicated that both molecules are capable of improving muscle growth by antagonizing myostatin (a member of the TGF-β family).

Follistatin 344 Research Studies

The first evidence that follistatin could enhance muscle growth came from studies conducted in mice in 2001. These studies found that myostatin, a known negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth, interacted with activin type II receptors found on muscle cells. Follistatin 344 interacts with these same receptors and is a competitive antagonist to myostatin. By blocking myostatin’s ability to bind to the activin receptors on muscle cells, follistatin 344 can allow for massive increases in muscle mass3.

Scientists are speculating on a number of ways that follistatin may be put to clinical use for muscle growth in the future. Research in mice from 2009 has indicated that follistatin might be useful in the disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). In SMA, there is a loss of function mutation that causes death of spinal motor neurons. When these nerves die, the muscles that they connect to atrophy as well. Research shows that follistatin not only preserves muscle tissue in mice with SMA, but that it also helps to preserve spinal motor neurons by creating a positive feedback loop. In fact, the mice in the study group lived 30% longer than mice who were not given Follistatin because of enhanced muscle and nerve cell survival4.

Another way in which the muscle-building benefits of follistatin may be put to good use in the future is in the treatment of muscular dystrophy and inclusion body myositis. In both diseases, muscle wasting leaves people too frail to walk or even breathe on their own. Even modest improvements in muscle mass and function would be life-changing for those suffering from these diseases5,6.

What is Epithalon?

By Rick 3 months ago

Epithalon is currently being studied and researched by Scientists and Doctors specializing in the field of anti-aging care and medicine. EPITHALON (Epitalon) is one of the most important breakthroughs in the study of anti-aging.

The Epithalon (Epitalon) tetrapeptide has been discovered by researchers in Russia. This was seen to reactivate the production of cell telomerase thus slowing down the aging process and rejuvenating the entire body. The development of molecular biology required bio-chemical studies that were nothing short of profound. Scientific work by Gobind Khorana and Marshall Nirenberg for many years resulted in defining codons or nucleotides and triplets and the genetic code of each of the 20 amino acids. This resulted in a Nobel Prize award in 1968 with Robert Holley. Nucleic acid investigations and identification of DNA and RNA base sequences were also conducted by the 1980 Nobel Prize winner for Chemistry Frederick Sanger along with Walter Gilbert and Paul Berg. These studies revealed the cause of aging.

Epithalon (Epitalon) and Aging

By Logan 3 months ago

Epithalon, also known as Epitalon is a synthetic peptide analog of epithalamin, a protein found in the pineal gland of mammals and of interest for its anti-aging properties. Past research studies have demonstrated that epithalamin can increase maximum life span in animals, decrease levels of free radicals, and alter catalase activity to prevent tissue damage [1]. Epithalamin has been shown to decrease mortality by 52% in fruit flies, by 52% in normal rats, and by 27% in mice prone to certain types of cancer and cardiovascular disease [2].

Epithalon has similar effects to epithalamin in mice and rats. It has also shown promise as an anti-cancer agent, reducing spontaneous mammary tumors in mice prone to them and reducing incidence of intestinal tumors in rodents. How does it achieve these effects?

MT-2 (Melanotan-2) and Hunger

By Logan 3 months ago

It is has been known for some time that leptin regulates satiety, but the exact mechanism of regulation has remained elusive. Research has recently revealed that leptin and melanocortins affect the same brain regions associated with hunger and metabolism. This finding has led to new insights into both leptin physiology and the effects of melanocortin analogues like melanotan-2 (MT-2).

The Role of Leptin in Hunger

Leptin, which is made by fat cells, controls both food intake and energy expenditure. A large majority of its effects are mediated through proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the central nervous system. By stimulating POMC neurons, leptin creates feelings of fullness. In some individuals, a decreased sensitivity of POMC neurons to leptin has been linked to an inability to detect satiety[1].

Melanotan II Facts and Myths

By Jonathan 3 months ago

Melanotan II is a synthetic cyclic lactam analog of naturally occurring α-MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone) developed by the University of Arizona and is known to have skin darkening effects as a result of increased production of skin darkening pigments. In clinical trials, Melanotan II has also been found to have aphrodisiac effects.

What is a Peptide? (Part 2)

By Logan 4 months ago

A peptide is nothing more than a string of amino acids that is similar to, but not identical to, a protein. To understand what a peptide is and how it differs from a protein, it is necessary to first understand what an amino acid is.

What Are Amino Acids?

Amino acids are biologically important molecules, but not all of them are used by living organisms. In fact, the human body requires only 20 different amino acids to function (the case for almost all living things), even though nearly 500 have been identified in the universe so far. Amino acids have two specific chemical structures, called amine and carboxylic acid groups, at opposite ends. These structures endow amino acids with a common set of functions and define how they interact with one another and with other molecules.

What is a Peptide?

By Michael 4 months ago

A peptide is a chain of amino acids linked to one another by amide (peptide) bonds. A peptide bond is the covalent chemical bond formed when the carboxyl group of one amino acid reacts with the amino group of another. The word peptide is derived from the greek word πεσσειν, which means "to digest." Peptides are an essential part of nature and there are thousands of them that occur naturally in the human body and in animals, but new synthetic peptides are being discovered daily, which show a promising future for health and drug development. The benefits of peptides on health have been demonstrated in numerous research studies related to neurological function, anti-aging, muscle growth, skin wrinkles, growth hormone deficiency and so forth.

What is Sermorelin?

By Michael 4 months ago

Sermorelin is the acetate salt of an amidated synthetic 29-amino acid peptide (GRF 1-29 NH 2 ) that corresponds to the amino-terminal segment of the naturally occurring human growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH or GRF) consisting of 44 amino acid residues.

It stimulates the pituitary gland to naturally produce increased amounts of human growth hormone. Sermorelin Acetate is a truncated analog of a growth hormone releasing factor (GRF 1-44) that is naturally produced by the brain to stimulate pituitary production of human growth hormone. The increased volume of human growth hormone (hGH) produced by the pituitary gland causes an increase in the production of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) by the liver and results in the excellent benefits of this peptide.

What is BPC-157?

By Logan 4 months ago

BPC 157 is a partial form of the protein known as body protection compound (BPC). BPC is a natural component within the body and has been found, in experiments on animals, to promote healing. BPC is not just active in intestinal repair and healing, but appears to produce similar effects in a number of tissues. Scientific studies based on animal test subjects has shown that its healing actions are at least partially linked to growth hormone (GH).

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TB-500 (Thymosin Beta-4) Peptide Research

By Michael 4 months ago

TB-500 also known as Thymosin Beta 4 is a naturally occurring peptide. It is found in high concentrations in blood platelets, wound fluid and other tissues in the body. TB-500 is not a growth factor; rather, it is a major actin regulating peptide. TB-500 (Thymosin Beta 4) has been found to play an important role in protection, regeneration and remodeling of injured or damaged tissues. The gene for TB-500 (Thymosin Beta 4) has also been found to be one of the first to be upregulated after a wound occurs.