Pinealon 20mg

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Pinealon 20mg

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Pinealon

Pinealon is an oligopeptide containing glutamyl-asparagine-arginine (Glu-Asp-Arg). Research has revealed that pinealon has a multitude of geroprotective properties and can reduce the effects of aging. The benefits of pinealon are particularly prominent in the brain and cardiovascular system. The tri-peptide is thought to reduce free radical damage and thus reduce or even reverse the long-term damaged caused by reactive oxygen species (free radicals)[1]–[3].

Chemical Formula: C15H26CuN6O8 

Molar Mass: 418.41 g/mol   

Peptide Sequence:  Glu-Asp-Arg

 

Pinealon Research Applications

Current research into pinealon focuses heavily on its ability to prevent oxidative damage and thus reduce the negative effects of aging. Oxidation is a byproduct of normal metabolism in which reactive oxygen species (also called free radicals) interact chemically with healthy tissues to cause damage. This damage is one of the main contributors to the aging process. In healthy individuals, free radicals are “cleaned up” by natural mechanisms, which are aided by antioxidants in the diet. Unfortunately, these natural mechanisms themselves are subject to the process of aging and become less effective over time. No amount of antioxidant consumption is enough to offset this decline in function.

 

Research in rats suggests that pinealon can boost the effects of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants and make cells more resistant to oxidative damage from free radicals. This effect is particularly prominent in neurologic tissue, where pinealon reduces the number of free radicals and clearly reduces the amount of cell death they cause[4].

 

It isn’t just that pinealon improves the function of antioxidants under normal conditions either. It appears that the tri-peptide reduces oxidative damage in disease conditions as well. In particular, pinealon can affect cytokine signaling in the brains of old rats undergoing ischemic stroke and reduce the oxidative damage and neuroinflammation that leads to tissue death and long-term disability[5]. In addition, pinealon appears to regulate caspase-3, a protein complex involved in normal brain development and the programmed death (apoptosis) of neurologic tissues. By modulating caspase-3 function, pinealon helps to prevent apoptosis and thus preserves brain tissue following stroke[6]. Indeed, research in rats has demonstrated increased survival rates following stroke in rats given pinealon[7]. Pinealon has also shown promise, over existing treatments and alternatives, in preserving tissue following hypoxic injury[8].

 

What Is Pinealon?

Pinealon is a synthetic  tripeptide complex containing Glu-Asp-Arg. It is capable of penetrating the blood-brain barrier of the central nervous system, the cell membrane, and the nuclear membrane.

 

What Does Pinealon Do?

Pinealon is primarily and epigenetic regulator, binding to DNA and changing gene expression levels. It primarily affects aspects of the body’s natural antioxidant mechanisms, including caspase-3. Pinealon affects cytokine signaling, particularly in the central nervous system, and appears to play a role in inflammation.

 

Pinealon and Caspase-3 Heart Research

Caspase-3 is not only active in neurologic tissue. It plays a prominent role in apoptosis throughout the body. Recent research has revealed elevated levels of caspase-3 fragments in the blood following myocardial infarction, indicating that regulation of the enzyme be a means of protecting cardiac tissue[9]. Pinealon, therefore, may be able to play a role in protecting the cardiovascular system following heart attack.

 

There is also some evidence to indicate that pinealon and similar peptides may be able to reduce lipid peroxidation and increase the stability of red blood cell membranes. By reducing lipid peroxidation, pinealon may slow or even reverse the formation of atherosclerotic plaques, reducing the primary cause of heart disease, heart attack, and death in industrialized nations[10].

 

Pinealon as Epigenetic Regulator

Recent research in cultured brain cortex cells has revealed that pinealon stimulates serotonin expression by upregulating the production of the gene encoding an enzyme critical to serotonin production. This epigenetic effect is tissue specific and may explain why pinealon has more selective serotonin impact than modern prescription drugs. Rather than act as a receptor or receptor blocker, pinealon acts as a stimulator of serotonin production via natural pathways in specific tissues. As a result, pinealon has its largest impact in tissues in which the DNA is already primed for serotonin expression[11].

 

It isn’t just serotonin production that pinealon affects at a genome level though. Research has shown that the tri-peptide can impact a number of natural antioxidant mechanisms, increasing their efficacy and actually modifying the process of programmed cell death[12]. It isn’t clear how pinealon is affecting antioxidant function via the genome, but it is clear that the oligopeptide can increase cell viability and suppress free radical levels at an epigenetic level.

 

Sleep Cycles Research and Pinealon

The pineal gland plays a central role in day-night cycling and sleep behavior. Certain human activities, particularly those related to work (e.g. swing shifts, long-haul trucking, etc.) can interfere with these normal cycles of the pineal gland and lead to dysfunction. Research suggests that pinealon may offset the dysfunction caused by these activities and reset the pineal gland to a normal state[13]. This would reduce or eliminate some of the negative side effects of shift work such as sleep disturbance, depression, anxiety, and even hypertension.

 

Certain work environments have also been shown to increase rates of aging (by adversely affecting pineal function) and lead to early dysfunction such as memory loss, heart disease, and even cancer. Research into pinealon indicates that this short peptide may offset these damaging effects and perhaps even reset aging in these populations to a normal baseline[14]. By overcoming the effects of work-related stress and pineal dysfunction, pinealon could by an easy means of improving work-related dysfunction in a large segment of the population.

 

Pinealon Effects on the Pineal Gland

Research indicates that pinealon increases proliferation of pineal cells and boosts their secretory function. This is likely one of the reasons that pinealon can offset the effects of aging. In normal aging, the pineal gland shrinks and loses function. The pineal gland itself plays roles in bone calcification, sleep regulation, learning, memory formation, day-night cycling, and drug metabolism. By preserving pineal gland function, pinealon helps to maintain a state of health in all of these settings.

 

References:

[1]          A. S. Bashkireva and E. Y. Kachan, “[Assessment of work ability index in evaluation of small peptides geroprotective effect],” Adv. Gerontol. Uspekhi Gerontol., vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 510–512, 2015.

[2]          V. N. Meshchaninov, E. L. Tkachenko, S. V. Zharkov, I. V. Gavrilov, and I. E. Katyreva, “[EFFECT OF SYNTHETIC PEPTIDES ON AGING OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC POLYMORBIDITY AND ORGANIC BRAIN SYNDROME OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM IN REMISSION],” Adv. Gerontol. Uspekhi Gerontol., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 62–67, 2015.

[3]          V. S. Myakotnykh et al., “[Comparative analysis of different methods of geroprotective],” Adv. Gerontol. Uspekhi Gerontol., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 594–601, 2016.

[4]          A. Arutjunyan, L. Kozina, S. Stvolinskiy, Y. Bulygina, A. Mashkina, and V. Khavinson, “Pinealon protects the rat offspring from prenatal hyperhomocysteinemia,” Int. J. Clin. Exp. Med., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 179–185, 2012.

[5]          A. M. Mendzheritskiĭ, G. V. Karantysh, G. A. Ryzhak, and S. V. Dem’ianenko, “[Regulation of content of cytokines in blood serum and of caspase-3 activity in brains of old rats in model of sharp hypoxic hypoxia with Cortexin and Pinealon],” Adv. Gerontol. Uspekhi Gerontol., vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 94–97, 2014.

[6]          A. M. Mendzheritski, G. V. Karantysh, V. A. Abramchuk, and G. A. Ryzhak, “[Effect of peptide geroprotectors on the navigation system learning and caspase-3 in brain structures in rats of different age],” Adv. Gerontol. Uspekhi Gerontol., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 252–257, 2013.

[7]          A. M. Mendzheritskiĭ, G. V. Karantysh, and K. O. Ivonina, “[Effects of introduction of short peptides before carotid artery occlusion on behaviour and caspase-3 activity in the brain of old rats],” Adv. Gerontol. Uspekhi Gerontol., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 74–79, 2011.

[8]          L. S. Kozina, “[Investigation of antihypoxic properties of short peptides],” Adv. Gerontol. Uspekhi Gerontol., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 61–67, 2008.

[9]          M. Agosto, M. Azrin, K. Singh, A. S. Jaffe, and B. T. Liang, “Serum caspase-3 p17 fragment is elevated in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: a novel observation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 220–221, Jan. 2011.

[10]        L. S. Kozina, A. V. Arutiunian, S. L. Stvolinskiĭ, and V. K. Khavinson, “[Biological activity of regulatory peptides in model experiments in vitro],” Adv. Gerontol. Uspekhi Gerontol., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 68–73, 2008.

[11]        V. K. Khavinson, N. S. Lin’kova, S. I. Tarnovskaya, R. S. Umnov, E. V. Elashkina, and A. O. Durnova, “Short peptides stimulate serotonin expression in cells of brain cortex,” Bull. Exp. Biol. Med., vol. 157, no. 1, pp. 77–80, May 2014.

[12]        V. Khavinson et al., “Pinealon increases cell viability by suppression of free radical levels and activating proliferative processes,” Rejuvenation Res., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 535–541, Oct. 2011.

[13]        A. S. Bashkireva and V. G. Artamonova, “[The peptide correction of neurotic disorders among professional truck-drivers],” Adv. Gerontol. Uspekhi Gerontol., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 718–728, 2012.

[14]        V. A. Nazimko et al., “[Analysis of some parameters of biological age and adaptation possibilities of workers of locomotive brigades],” Adv. Gerontol. Uspekhi Gerontol., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 57–62, 2012.