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Peptide Sciences Blog

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Epithalon Fights Aging by Activating Telomerase and More

By Logan E. 2 years ago

Epithalon Fights Aging by Activating Telomerase and More

Epithalon (epitalon) is a four-amino-acid-long peptide derived from a naturally occurring pineal gland protein. It has been shown, through extensive animal research, to be a potent regulator of cell metabolism, including growth and cell division. In particular, epithalon is able to extend cell survival in vitro. At least part of the reason that epithalon can extend cell survival comes down to its action on telomeres.

Telomeres

Telomeres, the repetitive nucleotide sequences at the end of linear chromosomes, protect DNA from degradation and deterioration. A telomere sequence starts out at about 11,000 DNA units (bases) long, but decreases in length to about 4,000 bases in old age. Interestingly, the rate of telomere degradation is faster in men than in women.

Telomeres are like self-sacrificing guards against actual DNA damage. Because they don’t code for anything, telomeres can be sacrificed when DNA is replicated (copied) without actually damaging any genes. This is necessary because DNA replication is an imperfect process. Of course, telomeres eventually get too short to serve their protective role. Cells have mechanisms to detect when this happens. When a telomere becomes too short, the cell either becomes inactive or dies. This is essentially the process of aging at a molecular level.

Epithalon and Skin Rejuvenation

By Richard A. 3 years ago

Epithalon and Skin Rejuvenation

Skin rejuvenation is often associated with wrinkles and lines, but the truth runs deeper than wrinkles. Skin becomes more fragile and thus more prone to damage as it ages. Damage to the skin compromises its protective barrier function and can increase risk of infection. Research into ways to strengthen skin can not only make skin look younger, but can protect people from serious medical conditions. Thus far, most skin rejuvenation research has focused on collagen and other large skin proteins. New research, however, suggests that short peptide molecules, like epithalon, may hold more promise in preserving and even rejuvenating skin.

Epithalon Overview

Epithalon (a.k.a. epitalon), is a short (just four amino acids long) peptide that has been demonstrated to have anti-aging and anti-cancer properties in rodent studies. Because epithalon is so short, it can penetrate the cell membrane, without the aid of transporters, and make its way to the nucleus of cells. This is important because, once in the nucleus, epithalon can affect the regulation of genes, activating some and deactivating others to cause cell-wide changes1.

Previous research has indicated that epithalon can stimulate immune system function that has been lost due to natural aging. Investigation of the mechanism of this action uncovered the ability of the Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly peptide chain (Epithalon) to interact with the promoter region of the interferon gamma gene. By promoting the production of interferon gamma, a key immune regulator, epithalon is able to boost functioning in T-cells and thus overall immunity and well being1,2.

The idea that short peptides might be able to affect DNA-level processes has caused a boom in the investigation and research of epithalon and other short peptides in animal models. Those investigations have led to the understanding that epithalon can impact skin aging by activating cellular repair processes, which often go dormant as we age.