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Epithalon (Epitalon) and Aging

“product By Logan 4 years ago

Epithalon, also known as Epitalon is a synthetic peptide analog of epithalamin, a protein found in the pineal gland of mammals and of interest for its anti-aging properties. Past research studies have demonstrated that epithalamin can increase maximum life span in animals, decrease levels of free radicals, and alter catalase activity to prevent tissue damage [1]. Epithalamin has been shown to decrease mortality by 52% in fruit flies, by 52% in normal rats, and by 27% in mice prone to certain types of cancer and cardiovascular disease [2].

Epithalon has similar effects to epithalamin in mice and rats. It has also shown promise as an anti-cancer agent, reducing spontaneous mammary tumors in mice prone to them and reducing incidence of intestinal tumors in rodents. How does it achieve these effects?

Longevity

Longevity isn't just about living longer, but about living healthier. Studies show that epithalon not only reactivates telomerase and thus extends a cell's life, but that it also reduces rates of DNA mutation, prevents degradation of immune function, promotes the health of the intestinal mucosa, and protects nerves from damage in rodent models [3]-[5]. In other words, epitalon extends both lifespan and health span (the number of years without disease or disability).

Mechanisms of Epithalon

It isn't entirely clear how epithalon produces its wide-ranging effects. It does not influence standard mechanisms of longevity, such as calorie uptake or body weight. It does, however, seem to decrease the frequency of chromosome abberations in mouse models [6], [7]. Epithalon appears to be protective of DNA in more ways than one. It is clear that it activates telomerase and thus prevents the degradation of telomeres (the end caps of DNA strands), but it is less clear how epitalon prevents other types of DNA damage. At least some of the answer lies in its modulation of free radicals, but the mechanism is not sufficient to explain the far-reaching effects of epithalon.

Research into the DNA protecting effects of epithalon is ongoing as are studies in mice regarding the long-term safety of using the peptide. Interestingly, epithalon appears to be more effective in decreasing the effects of aging in rodents. This fact may eventually help to track down the exact mechanisms by which epithalon works.

Resources

[1] V. N. Anisimov, S. V. Mylnikov, T. I. Oparina, and V. K. Khavinson, "Effect of melatonin and pineal peptide preparation epithalamin on life span and free radical oxidation in Drosophila melanogaster," Mech. Ageing Dev., vol. 97, no. 2, pp. 81-91, Aug. 1997.

[2] V. N. Anisimov, S. V. Mylnikov, and V. K. Khavinson, "Pineal peptide preparation epithalamin increases the lifespan of fruit flies, mice and rats," Mech. Ageing Dev., vol. 103, no. 2, pp. 123-132, Jun. 1998.

[3] S. V. Rosenfeld, E. F. Togo, V. S. Mikheev, I. G. Popovich, V. K. Khavinson, and V. N. Anisimov, "Effect of epithalon on the incidence of chromosome aberrations in senescence-accelerated mice," Bull. Exp. Biol. Med., vol. 133, no. 3, pp. 274-276, Mar. 2002.

[4] V. K. Khavinson, E. G. Rybakina, V. V. Malinin, I. Y. Pivanovich, S. N. Shanin, and E. A. Korneva, "Effects of short peptides on thymocyte blast transformation and signal transduction along the sphingomyelin pathway,"Bull. Exp. Biol. Med., vol. 133, no. 5, pp. 497-499, May 2002.

[5] V. K. Khavinson, N. M. Timofeeva, V. V. Malinin, L. A. Gordova, and A. A. Nikitina, "Effect of vilon and epithalon on activity of enzymes in epithelial and subepithelial layers in small intestine of old rats," Bull. Exp. Biol. Med., vol. 134, no. 6, pp. 562-564, Dec. 2002.

[6] T. A. Dzhokhadze, T. Z. Buadze, M. N. Gaĭozishvili, M. A. Rogava, and T. A. Lazhava, "[Functional regulation of genome with peptide bioregulators by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (by patients and relatives)],"Georgian Med. News, no. 225, pp. 94-97, Dec. 2013.

[7] V. N. Anisimov, V. K. Khavinson, I. G. Popovich, M. A. Zabezhinski, I. N. Alimova, S. V. Rosenfeld, N. Y. Zavarzina, A. V. Semenchenko, and A. I. Yashin, "Effect of Epitalon on biomarkers of aging, life span and spontaneous tumor incidence in female Swiss-derived SHR mice," Biogerontology, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 193-202, 2003.