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Peptide Sciences Blog

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LL-37 blocks an enzyme required by the original coronavirus and may eliminate damaged cells without inflammation.

By Nemo 1 month ago

LL-37 selectively inhibits the Cathepsin L protease involved in SARS-CoV activation while partially enhancing proteases Cathepsins S and K.

LL-37 inhibits cathepsin L at a concentration of 150 nM. (15) Cathepsin L primes (helps activate) the SARS-CoV RNA virus when it is entering the cell. (16)

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How can Thymosin Beta4 (TB500) improve recovery, inflammation, neuropathies, fibrosis, telomerase and senescent cell removal?

By Nemo 2 months ago

Thymosin B4 Reduces Inflammation by Upregulating MicroRNA-146a and Promotes Myelin

"Tissue inflammation results from neurological injury, and regulation of the inflammatory response is vital for neurological recovery. The innate immune response system, which includes the Toll-like receptor (TLR) proinflammatory signaling pathway, regulates tissue injury... TB4-mediated oligodendrogenesis results from [up-regulating] miR-146a [causing the] suppression [of] the TLR proinflammatory pathway and modulation of the p38 MAPK pathway." (8)

"By targeting IRAK1 and TRAF6, miR-146 inhibits NF-κB activation. We therefore hypothesized that TB4 regulates the TLR proinflammatory signaling pathway by specifically regulating miR-146a to promote differentiation of OPCs [oligodendrocyte progenitor cells] to mature myelin basic protein (MBP)-expressing OLs [oligodendrocytes]... transfection with anti-miR-146a inhibitor nucleotides significantly inhibited the expression of MBP and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK." (8)

How does PNC-27 selectively target certain types of cancer cells?

By Nemo 2 months ago

How does PNC-27 target cancer cells without relying on the master regulator of apoptosis p53?

“The results strongly suggest, that PNC-27 (and by inference PNC-28) is inserted in the plasma membrane of cancer cells upon binding to HDM2, where, by random movement, the HDM2-PNC-27 complexes assemble into oligomers and eventually into membrane pores. Influx of free PNC-27 molecules through the newly formed membrane pores into the cells... cytoplasm leads to the assembly of pores in mitochondrial membranes and rapid cell death.” (5)

“PNC-27 induces cancer cell membrane lysis by acting as the whole peptide, not fragments.” (4)

Fig. 4 Confocal microscopy results for MCF-10-2A cells treated with double-Xuorescentlabeled PNC-27 as described in the legend to Fig. 3. As in Fig. 3, the time frames proceed from top to bottom, the 30-min time frame occurring at the top of the Wgure and the 48 time frame at the bottom, as labeled on the left of the Wgure. For each time frame, red, green and combined (yellow) Xuorescence is shown from left to right, respectively

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How does BPC-157 help balance dopamine, cardiovascular function, and healing?

By Nemo 2 months ago

Multi-Organ Membrane Repair and Dopamine Balancing.

"Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 antagonises the incidence of a series of gastrointestinal lesions, it has a positive impact on the healing processes of various wounds, a proven angiogenic effect, protective effect on endothelium and it modulates synthesis of NO." (1)

"Apart from the effects on various gastrointestinal lesions, the potentially beneficial effect on pancreas, liver injuries, endothelium and heart damage, i.e. dysrhythmias following reoxygenation, and blood pressure, along with effect on experimental acute/chronic inflammation, wound and fracture (pseudoarthrosis) healing are described. It appears that these beneficial effects all together provide a particular network reflecting activity of a special peptidergic defence system." (4)

"In support of this concept, it appears that there are interactions of this pentadecapeptide with many important systems (namely, dopamine-, NO-, prostaglandin-, somatosensory neurone-systems), that could provide a basis for the observed protective effects. Moreover, since disturbance of these systems' functions (i.e. dopamine-, NO-, somatosensory neuronal-system) which manifest either over-activity or as inhibition, may contribute to the multiple lesions in different organs. The reported evidence that this pentadecapeptide is able to counteract both their over-action, and their inhibition, may suggest this pentadecapeptide as a new, but most probably essential physiological defence system and that should be further investigated." (4)

File:Gastric Ulcer.png

Read More Posted in: BPC-157