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Peptide Sciences Blog


Hexarelin research and the reduction of cardiac fibrosis

By Nemo 3 months ago

"MMPs, particularly MMP-9 and MMP-2 [collagen degrading enzymes], are involved in cardiac fibrosis. Activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the heart did not show significant differences between SHRs and Wistar rats (Fig. 6). However, hexarelin treatment remarkably increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in SHRs, especially MMP-9 activity, in a GHS-R-dependent manner, since blockade of GHS-R abolished the hexarelin-induced increase in MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities (Fig. 6A). mRNA expression of TIMP-1, the inhibitor of MMPs, was dramatically increased in SHRs compared with Wistar rats and was reduced by hexarelin in SHRs in a GHS-R-dependent manner (Fig. 6B)."

Hexarelin suppressed TIMP-1 mRNA and its inhibition of collagen degrading enzymes in the rat heart, thereby boosting the collagen degrading enzymes MMP-2 and MMP-9.

Humanin Mitochondrial Peptide Prevents Age-related Myocardial Fibrosis in mice

By Nemo 3 months ago

"Humanin (HN) is an endogenous mitochondria-derived peptide that has cytoprotective effects and reduces oxidative stress. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that chronic supplementation of exogenous HN in middle-aged mice could prevent and reverse cardiac fibrosis and apoptosis in the aging heart."

"HNG treatment significantly increased the ratio of cardiomyocytes to fibroblasts in aging hearts, as shown by the percentage of each cell type in randomly chosen fields after immunofluorescence staining. The percentage of other cell types did not change among these groups... Furthermore, the increased collagen deposition in aged hearts was significantly reduced after HNG treatment, as indicated by picrosirius red staining. HNG treatment also reduced in aging mice cardiac fibroblast proliferation and attenuated transforming growth factor-β1, fibroblast growth factor-2, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression. Myocardial apoptosis was inhibited in HNG-treated aged mice."

"Cardiac fibrosis is a biological process that increases with age and contributes to myocardial dysfunction. Humanin is an endogenous mitochondria-derived peptide that has cytoprotective effects and reduces oxidative stress. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, that exogenous humanin treatment attenuated myocardial fibrosis and apoptosis in aging mice. We also detected upregulated Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β pathway in humanin analog-treated mice, which might be the mechanism involved in the cardioprotective effect of humanin analog in aging mice."

Read More Posted in: Humanin

Hexarelin protects heart cells from hypertrophy by stimulating autophagy.

By Nemo 3 months ago

“Ang-II induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, oxidative stress, apoptosis and decreased cell survival, all of which were significantly suppressed by hexarelin (a growth hormone peptide) treatment which also enhanced autophagy in hypertrophic H9C2 cells.”‬

What is Melanotan 2?

By Michael 4 months ago

Melanotan 2 also known as Melanotan II, is a synthetically produced variant of a peptide hormone naturally produced in the body that stimulates melanogenesis, a process responsible for pigmentation of the skin. This peptide hormone, called alpha-Melanocyte stimulating hormone or MSH, activates certain melanocortin receptors in the process of exerting its effects. Indeed, MSH also exerts potent influence over lipid metabolism, appetite, and sexual libido via these melanocortin receptors. As a result, Melanotan 2 has been shown in studies to exhibit appetite suppressant, lipolytic, and libido-enhancing effects in addition to promoting skin tanning. Melanotan 2 has been researched extensively for use in protecting against the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation from sunlight due to Melanotan 2's melanogenesis-stimulating properties. Additionally, Melanotan 2 has been studied at length as a potential remedy for the treatment of sexual dysfunction.