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Peptide Sciences Blog


The Research Effects of TB-500 on Tissue Growth

By Logan 6 months ago

TB-500 is also known as thymosin beta 4 (TB4). Thymosin Beta 4 has been found, in animal models, to play a central role in controlling the structure of cells. By improving cell structure, TB-500 is thought to aid in wound healing, improve cell responses to stress, and even help cells to live longer. Scientific animal research studies have shown that TB-500's role in regulating cell structure may eventually make it a leading therapeutic in wound healing, blood vessel repair, and even ocular (eye) repair.

IGF1 LR3 Information

By Carl 6 months ago

IGF1 LR3 (insulin-like growth factor-1 Long R3) is a non-glycosylated, recombinant polypeptide chain made up of 83 amino acids. IGF1 LR3 is the recombinant form of human IGF-1, and as such it contains the entire native amino acid sequence but with two major modifications: substitution of arginine (abbreviated R or arg) at position 3 with glutamic acid (abbreviated E or Glu) hence the label R3; and the extension of the N-terminus of the native sequence by a 13 amino-acid peptide hence the label long. The native form of a polypeptide refers to the naturally occurring amino acid sequence and the resultant conformational structure. The molecular weight of IGF1 LR3 as measured by Mass Spectrometry is 9.116 kD (kiloDaltons). A specifically designed protein expression system is utilized in the production of IGF1 LR3 in Escherichia Coli. Thereafter, chromatographic techniques are used to correctly fold and purify the IGF1 LR3 to the highly-active and functional IGF1 LR3 that can bind to human IGF-1R (insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor).

What is Thymosin Alpha-1

By Becka 6 months ago

Thymosin Alpha-1 is a biologically active peptide derived from prothymosin-alpha. Current hypotheses consider Thymosin Alpha-1 to be the main constituent of Thymosin Fraction-5, and as such it is considered to be the active component that restores the immune function in both athymic animals and animals with dysfunctional thymus glands. Thymosin Alpha-1 was among the first peptide isolates of Thymosin Fraction-5 to be sequenced and thereafter synthetically synthesized.

In humans, the PTMA gene encodes prothymosin-alpha, a 113 amino-acid polypeptide. Thymosin Alpha-1 is a 28 amino-acid fragment of prothymosin-alpha, and research has shown that this fragment derivative enhances the cell-mediated immune component of the human immune system. Its immune actions have enabled it to be used for treating viral infections such as Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C. It has also been incorporated into vaccines as an immune booster. Clinical studies have also shown that Thymosin Alpha-1 can be used to manage neoplasias since they upregulate cytotoxic T-cells which are involved in immune surveillance.

What is Adipotide?

By Carl 6 months ago

Adipotide is a peptidomimetic compound that has been shown to possess pro-apoptotic properties that do cause weight loss in rhesus monkeys and mice. Its sequence is CKGGRAKDC-GG-D(KLAKLAK)2. Studies have shown that its mode of action involves the selective apoptosis of blood vessels supplying the white adipose tissue. Adipotide causes such vessels to undergo atrophy (shrinkage) and eventually apoptosis (cell death), thus cutting off the blood supply to the fat cells. This results in ischemic injury, which is a lack of blood supply and oxygen to the fat cells. The effects are non-reversible, so the fat cells also undergo apoptosis or cell death.

Sermorelin, Sleep and the Brain

By Logan 6 months ago

Fifteen years ago, orexins were identified as central regulators of energy homeostasis. Research indicates that orexins are key modulators of the sleep-wake cycle and that these neuropeptides also affect feelings of satiety and hunger. Given their role in energy homeostasis, it was hypothesized that orexin levels are likely regulated, at least in part, by the growth hormone axis. Recent research supports this fact and suggests that growth hormone releasing hormone analogues, such as sermorelin, may be effective in treating conditions in which orexin release is dysfunctional (e.g. narcolepsy) [1].

Follistatin 344

By Logan 6 months ago

Follistatin 344 (and 315)

Follistatin, also called activin-binding protein, is found in nearly all tissues of vertebrate animals. Its primary function is to neutralize members of the TGF-β family, which play fundamental roles in everything from growth and development to energy homeostasis and immune system regulation. In particular, follistatin interacts with activin, which plays an important part in cell proliferation and cell death as well as in the immune response as it applies to wound repair1,2.

Follistatin 344 and 315 are engineered analogues of naturally occurring follistatin. Both are created by alternative splicing of the follistatin mRNA transcript. Scientific research in non-human primates as well as in mice have indicated that both molecules are capable of improving muscle growth by antagonizing myostatin (a member of the TGF-β family).

Follistatin 344 Research Studies

The first evidence that follistatin could enhance muscle growth came from studies conducted in mice in 2001. These studies found that myostatin, a known negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth, interacted with activin type II receptors found on muscle cells. Follistatin 344 interacts with these same receptors and is a competitive antagonist to myostatin. By blocking myostatin’s ability to bind to the activin receptors on muscle cells, follistatin 344 can allow for massive increases in muscle mass3.

Scientists are speculating on a number of ways that follistatin may be put to clinical use for muscle growth in the future. Research in mice from 2009 has indicated that follistatin might be useful in the disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). In SMA, there is a loss of function mutation that causes death of spinal motor neurons. When these nerves die, the muscles that they connect to atrophy as well. Research shows that follistatin not only preserves muscle tissue in mice with SMA, but that it also helps to preserve spinal motor neurons by creating a positive feedback loop. In fact, the mice in the study group lived 30% longer than mice who were not given Follistatin because of enhanced muscle and nerve cell survival4.

Another way in which the muscle-building benefits of follistatin may be put to good use in the future is in the treatment of muscular dystrophy and inclusion body myositis. In both diseases, muscle wasting leaves people too frail to walk or even breathe on their own. Even modest improvements in muscle mass and function would be life-changing for those suffering from these diseases5,6.

What is Epithalon?

By Rick 6 months ago

Epithalon is currently being studied and researched by Scientists and Doctors specializing in the field of anti-aging care and medicine. EPITHALON (Epitalon) is one of the most important breakthroughs in the study of anti-aging.

The Epithalon (Epitalon) tetrapeptide has been discovered by researchers in Russia. This was seen to reactivate the production of cell telomerase thus slowing down the aging process and rejuvenating the entire body. The development of molecular biology required bio-chemical studies that were nothing short of profound. Scientific work by Gobind Khorana and Marshall Nirenberg for many years resulted in defining codons or nucleotides and triplets and the genetic code of each of the 20 amino acids. This resulted in a Nobel Prize award in 1968 with Robert Holley. Nucleic acid investigations and identification of DNA and RNA base sequences were also conducted by the 1980 Nobel Prize winner for Chemistry Frederick Sanger along with Walter Gilbert and Paul Berg. These studies revealed the cause of aging.