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BPC157 and Healing

By Logan 6 months ago

BPC-157 and Healing

BPC 157 is a part of a naturally occurring protein known as body protection compound (BPC). BPC was first isolated from gastric (stomach) juice, but has also been found in other locations, such as the skin and liver. Previous research in animal test subjects has indicated that BPC 157 and BPC both promote healing. New animal research is starting to shed some light on just how they do that.

Fibroblast Outgrowth and Migration

Fibroblasts are motile (move about) cells found in most connective tissue (bones, tendons, muscle, gastric mucosa, skin, etc.). When damage to tissue occurs, fibroblasts migrate to the site of injury in order to begin the process of repair. They also divide and reproduce (outgrowth) to increase the number of fibroblasts available for tissue repair.

In in vitro studies reveal that migration of fibroblasts is directly affected by BPC 157 concentrations. Where BPC 157 levels are the highest, more fibroblasts can be found.

Evidence shows that BPC 157 is not just an attractant, but that it causes fibroblasts to migrate nearly 2.5 times faster than normal. Not only do the cells migrate in response to BPC 157 levels, they reproduce in response to them as well. Fibroblast outgrowth is approximately three times higher in the presence of BPC 157 [1].

Cell Survival and BPC 157

In vitro experiments indicate that fibroblasts survive for longer in the presence of BPC 157. Fibroblasts survive about 1.5 times longer when BPC 157 is present [2]. What is more, those cells tend to be healthier and more active and thus more capable of carrying out their repair roles.

The Net Effect

By encouraging fibroblast migration, enhancing fibroblast survival, and increasing the speed at which fibroblasts are able to reach a site of injury, BPC 157 increases rates of tissue repair by several orders of magnitude. All of this is achieved by simply stimulating natural healing processes. BPC 157 can best be thought of as boosting the function of the body's natural repair mechanisms.

Resources

[1] C.-H. Chang, W.-C. Tsai, M.-S. Lin, Y.-H. Hsu, and J.-H. S. Pang, "The promoting effect of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on tendon healing involves tendon outgrowth, cell survival, and cell migration," J. Appl. Physiol., vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 774-780, Mar. 2011.

[2] B. Bódis, O. Karádi, P. Németh, C. Dohoczky, M. Kolega, and G. Mózsik, "Evidence for direct cellular protective effect of PL-10 substances (synthesized parts of body protection compound, BPC) and their specificity to gastric mucosal cells," Life Sci., vol. 61, no. 16, p. PL 243-248, 1997.

Epithalon (Epitalon) and Aging

By Logan 6 months ago

Epithalon, also known as Epitalon is a synthetic peptide analog of epithalamin, a protein found in the pineal gland of mammals and of interest for its anti-aging properties. Past research studies have demonstrated that epithalamin can increase maximum life span in animals, decrease levels of free radicals, and alter catalase activity to prevent tissue damage [1]. Epithalamin has been shown to decrease mortality by 52% in fruit flies, by 52% in normal rats, and by 27% in mice prone to certain types of cancer and cardiovascular disease [2].

Epithalon has similar effects to epithalamin in mice and rats. It has also shown promise as an anti-cancer agent, reducing spontaneous mammary tumors in mice prone to them and reducing incidence of intestinal tumors in rodents. How does it achieve these effects?

MT-2 (Melanotan-2) and Hunger

By Logan 7 months ago

It is has been known for some time that leptin regulates satiety, but the exact mechanism of regulation has remained elusive. Research has recently revealed that leptin and melanocortins affect the same brain regions associated with hunger and metabolism. This finding has led to new insights into both leptin physiology and the effects of melanocortin analogues like melanotan-2 (MT-2).

The Role of Leptin in Hunger

Leptin, which is made by fat cells, controls both food intake and energy expenditure. A large majority of its effects are mediated through proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the central nervous system. By stimulating POMC neurons, leptin creates feelings of fullness. In some individuals, a decreased sensitivity of POMC neurons to leptin has been linked to an inability to detect satiety[1].

Melanotan II Facts and Myths

By Jonathan 7 months ago

Melanotan II is a synthetic cyclic lactam analog of naturally occurring α-MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone) developed by the University of Arizona and is known to have skin darkening effects as a result of increased production of skin darkening pigments. In clinical trials, Melanotan II has also been found to have aphrodisiac effects.

What is a Peptide? (Part 2)

By Logan 7 months ago

A peptide is nothing more than a string of amino acids that is similar to, but not identical to, a protein. To understand what a peptide is and how it differs from a protein, it is necessary to first understand what an amino acid is.

What Are Amino Acids?

Amino acids are biologically important molecules, but not all of them are used by living organisms. In fact, the human body requires only 20 different amino acids to function (the case for almost all living things), even though nearly 500 have been identified in the universe so far. Amino acids have two specific chemical structures, called amine and carboxylic acid groups, at opposite ends. These structures endow amino acids with a common set of functions and define how they interact with one another and with other molecules.