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Epithalon and Skin Rejuvenation

By Richard A. 3 years ago

Epithalon and Skin Rejuvenation

Skin rejuvenation is often associated with wrinkles and lines, but the truth runs deeper than wrinkles. Skin becomes more fragile and thus more prone to damage as it ages. Damage to the skin compromises its protective barrier function and can increase risk of infection. Research into ways to strengthen skin can not only make skin look younger, but can protect people from serious medical conditions. Thus far, most skin rejuvenation research has focused on collagen and other large skin proteins. New research, however, suggests that short peptide molecules, like epithalon, may hold more promise in preserving and even rejuvenating skin.

Epithalon Overview

Epithalon (a.k.a. epitalon), is a short (just four amino acids long) peptide that has been demonstrated to have anti-aging and anti-cancer properties in rodent studies. Because epithalon is so short, it can penetrate the cell membrane, without the aid of transporters, and make its way to the nucleus of cells. This is important because, once in the nucleus, epithalon can affect the regulation of genes, activating some and deactivating others to cause cell-wide changes1.

Previous research has indicated that epithalon can stimulate immune system function that has been lost due to natural aging. Investigation of the mechanism of this action uncovered the ability of the Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly peptide chain (Epithalon) to interact with the promoter region of the interferon gamma gene. By promoting the production of interferon gamma, a key immune regulator, epithalon is able to boost functioning in T-cells and thus overall immunity and well being1,2.

The idea that short peptides might be able to affect DNA-level processes has caused a boom in the investigation and research of epithalon and other short peptides in animal models. Those investigations have led to the understanding that epithalon can impact skin aging by activating cellular repair processes, which often go dormant as we age.

GHK-Cu Research

By Richard A. 3 years ago

GHK-Cu Research

GHK-Cu is a naturally occurring peptide, made of the three amino acids Glycine-Histidine-Lysine, that is complexed with a copper molecule. It was first isolated from human plasma (a part of blood), but can also be found in saliva and urine. It has been linked to skin and tissue healing as well as to immune function and antioxidant generation. Like many natural anti-aging compounds, tissue levels of GHK-Cu tend to drop as humans age, from a high of about 200 micrograms per milliliter at age 20 to a low of 80 micrograms per milliliter by age 601.

GHK-Cu and Skin Healing

About a decade ago, research studies revealed that GHK-Cu is involved in wound healing and in the regulation of scar formation. The list of processes that research has shown GHK-Cu to be involved in includes

  1. Attracting cells that are involved in the repair process,
  2. Suppressing free radicals,
  3. Reducing inflammation by boosting levels of key anti-inflammatory molecules,
  4. Increasing protein synthesis, and
  5. Increasing fibroblast growth and differentiation1.


Research from 2014 suggests that GHK-Cu may play an important role in regulating levels of transforming growth factor-β and insulin-like growth factor-2. By increasing levels of TGF-β and decreasing levels of IGF-2, GHK-Cu is able to improve skin healing while reducing the formation of hypertrophic scars2.

Controlled studies of GHK-Cu and aging skin in animals indicate that the peptide tightens skin, improves firmness, boosts elasticity, reduces fine lines and wrinkles, and helps to resolve photo damage. More recent research has also indicated that GHK-Cu can protect the liver from toxins, boost bone growth, and protect gastrointestinal tissue from ulcer formation. Now, it turns out, GHK-Cu also plays a role in protecting against microbial invaders.