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Peptide Sciences Blog

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Epithalon (Epitalon) and Aging

By Logan 4 years ago

Epithalon, also known as Epitalon is a synthetic peptide analog of epithalamin, a protein found in the pineal gland of mammals and of interest for its anti-aging properties. Past research studies have demonstrated that epithalamin can increase maximum life span in animals, decrease levels of free radicals, and alter catalase activity to prevent tissue damage [1]. Epithalamin has been shown to decrease mortality by 52% in fruit flies, by 52% in normal rats, and by 27% in mice prone to certain types of cancer and cardiovascular disease [2].

Epithalon has similar effects to epithalamin in mice and rats. It has also shown promise as an anti-cancer agent, reducing spontaneous mammary tumors in mice prone to them and reducing incidence of intestinal tumors in rodents. How does it achieve these effects?

MT-2 (Melanotan-2) and Hunger

By Logan 4 years ago

It is has been known for some time that leptin regulates satiety, but the exact mechanism of regulation has remained elusive. Research has recently revealed that leptin and melanocortins affect the same brain regions associated with hunger and metabolism. This finding has led to new insights into both leptin physiology and the effects of melanocortin analogues like melanotan-2 (MT-2).

The Role of Leptin in Hunger

Leptin, which is made by fat cells, controls both food intake and energy expenditure. A large majority of its effects are mediated through proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the central nervous system. By stimulating POMC neurons, leptin creates feelings of fullness. In some individuals, a decreased sensitivity of POMC neurons to leptin has been linked to an inability to detect satiety[1].

What is a Peptide? (Part 2)

By Logan 4 years ago

A peptide is nothing more than a string of amino acids that is similar to, but not identical to, a protein. To understand what a peptide is and how it differs from a protein, it is necessary to first understand what an amino acid is.

What Are Amino Acids?

Amino acids are biologically important molecules, but not all of them are used by living organisms. In fact, the human body requires only 20 different amino acids to function (the case for almost all living things), even though nearly 500 have been identified in the universe so far. Amino acids have two specific chemical structures, called amine and carboxylic acid groups, at opposite ends. These structures endow amino acids with a common set of functions and define how they interact with one another and with other molecules.