Peptide Sciences Blog

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Humanin Mitochondrial Peptide Prevents Age-related Myocardial Fibrosis in mice

By Nemo 4 months ago

"Humanin (HN) is an endogenous mitochondria-derived peptide that has cytoprotective effects and reduces oxidative stress. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that chronic supplementation of exogenous HN in middle-aged mice could prevent and reverse cardiac fibrosis and apoptosis in the aging heart."

"HNG treatment significantly increased the ratio of cardiomyocytes to fibroblasts in aging hearts, as shown by the percentage of each cell type in randomly chosen fields after immunofluorescence staining. The percentage of other cell types did not change among these groups... Furthermore, the increased collagen deposition in aged hearts was significantly reduced after HNG treatment, as indicated by picrosirius red staining. HNG treatment also reduced in aging mice cardiac fibroblast proliferation and attenuated transforming growth factor-β1, fibroblast growth factor-2, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression. Myocardial apoptosis was inhibited in HNG-treated aged mice."

"Cardiac fibrosis is a biological process that increases with age and contributes to myocardial dysfunction. Humanin is an endogenous mitochondria-derived peptide that has cytoprotective effects and reduces oxidative stress. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, that exogenous humanin treatment attenuated myocardial fibrosis and apoptosis in aging mice. We also detected upregulated Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β pathway in humanin analog-treated mice, which might be the mechanism involved in the cardioprotective effect of humanin analog in aging mice."

Read More Posted in: Humanin

Hexarelin protects heart cells from hypertrophy by stimulating autophagy.

By Nemo 4 months ago

“Ang-II induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, oxidative stress, apoptosis and decreased cell survival, all of which were significantly suppressed by hexarelin (a growth hormone peptide) treatment which also enhanced autophagy in hypertrophic H9C2 cells.”‬

GHK-Cu Research

By Richard A. 7 months ago

GHK-Cu Research

GHK-Cu is a naturally occurring peptide, made of the three amino acids Glycine-Histidine-Lysine, that is complexed with a copper molecule. It was first isolated from human plasma (a part of blood), but can also be found in saliva and urine. It has been linked to skin and tissue healing as well as to immune function and antioxidant generation. Like many natural anti-aging compounds, tissue levels of GHK-Cu tend to drop as humans age, from a high of about 200 micrograms per milliliter at age 20 to a low of 80 micrograms per milliliter by age 601.

GHK-Cu and Skin Healing

About a decade ago, research studies revealed that GHK-Cu is involved in wound healing and in the regulation of scar formation. The list of processes that research has shown GHK-Cu to be involved in includes

  1. Attracting cells that are involved in the repair process,
  2. Suppressing free radicals,
  3. Reducing inflammation by boosting levels of key anti-inflammatory molecules,
  4. Increasing protein synthesis, and
  5. Increasing fibroblast growth and differentiation.


Research from 2014 suggests that GHK-Cu may play an important role in regulating levels of transforming growth factor-β and insulin-like growth factor-2. By increasing levels of TGF-β and decreasing levels of IGF-2, GHK-Cu is able to improve skin healing while reducing the formation of hypertrophic scars2.

Controlled studies of GHK-Cu and aging skin in animals indicate that the peptide tightens skin, improves firmness, boosts elasticity, reduces fine lines and wrinkles, and helps to resolve photo damage. More recent research has also indicated that GHK-Cu can protect the liver from toxins, boost bone growth, and protect gastrointestinal tissue from ulcer formation. Now, it turns out, GHK-Cu also plays a role in protecting against microbial invaders.

AICAR Research

By Richard A. 7 months ago

AICAR Research

AICAR is an AMP-kinase activator widely used in animal research to investigate energy homeostasis and the regulation of metabolism. Studies have found that AICAR can regulate insulin receptors and change muscle cell function, which has led to investigations into its use for the management of diabetes. The molecule has also been found to have anti-cancer properties, slowing the growth of cancer cells both in vivo and in mouse models. It has additionally been used, in the past, to protect heart muscle during surgery1.

What Is AICAR?

AICAR is short for 5-aminoimidazole--4-carboxamide ribonucleoside. It is also called acadesine. It is actually a naturally occurring molecule, acting as an intermediate in the production of other nucleosides. Because it is an intermediate, AICAR is not found in substantial quantities in living organisms.

What makes AICAR so interesting to the research community is that it can penetrate cell walls. Unlike many compounds, it can pass through a cell wall without difficulty and without being altered. That means it is easy to get AICAR to the interior of the cell where it can act to regulate metabolism, cell growth, and cell death.

What is Thymosin Alpha-1

By Becka 7 months ago

Thymosin Alpha-1 is a biologically active peptide derived from prothymosin-alpha. Current hypotheses consider Thymosin Alpha-1 to be the main constituent of Thymosin Fraction-5, and as such it is considered to be the active component that restores the immune function in both athymic animals and animals with dysfunctional thymus glands. Thymosin Alpha-1 was among the first peptide isolates of Thymosin Fraction-5 to be sequenced and thereafter synthetically synthesized.

In humans, the PTMA gene encodes prothymosin-alpha, a 113 amino-acid polypeptide. Thymosin Alpha-1 is a 28 amino-acid fragment of prothymosin-alpha, and research has shown that this fragment derivative enhances the cell-mediated immune component of the human immune system. Its immune actions have enabled it to be used for treating viral infections such as Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C. It has also been incorporated into vaccines as an immune booster. Clinical studies have also shown that Thymosin Alpha-1 can be used to manage neoplasias since they upregulate cytotoxic T-cells which are involved in immune surveillance.

What is Adipotide?

By Carl 7 months ago

Adipotide is a peptidomimetic compound that has been shown to possess pro-apoptotic properties that do cause weight loss in rhesus monkeys and mice. Its sequence is CKGGRAKDC-GG-D(KLAKLAK)2. Studies have shown that its mode of action involves the selective apoptosis of blood vessels supplying the white adipose tissue. Adipotide causes such vessels to undergo atrophy (shrinkage) and eventually apoptosis (cell death), thus cutting off the blood supply to the fat cells. This results in ischemic injury, which is a lack of blood supply and oxygen to the fat cells. The effects are non-reversible, so the fat cells also undergo apoptosis or cell death.

Follistatin 344

By Logan 7 months ago

Follistatin 344 (and 315)

Follistatin, also called activin-binding protein, is found in nearly all tissues of vertebrate animals. Its primary function is to neutralize members of the TGF-β family, which play fundamental roles in everything from growth and development to energy homeostasis and immune system regulation. In particular, follistatin interacts with activin, which plays an important part in cell proliferation and cell death as well as in the immune response as it applies to wound repair1,2.

Follistatin 344 and Follistatin 315 are engineered analogues of naturally occurring follistatin. Both are created by alternative splicing of the follistatin mRNA transcript. Scientific research in non-human primates as well as in mice have indicated that both molecules are capable of improving muscle growth by antagonizing myostatin (a member of the TGF-β family).

Follistatin 344 Research Studies

The first evidence that follistatin could enhance muscle growth came from studies conducted in mice in 2001. These studies found that myostatin, a known negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth, interacted with activin type II receptors found on muscle cells. Follistatin 344 interacts with these same receptors and is a competitive antagonist to myostatin. By blocking myostatin’s ability to bind to the activin receptors on muscle cells, follistatin 344 can allow for massive increases in muscle mass3.

Scientists are speculating on a number of ways that follistatin may be put to clinical use for muscle growth in the future. Research in mice from 2009 has indicated that follistatin might be useful in the disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). In SMA, there is a loss of function mutation that causes death of spinal motor neurons. When these nerves die, the muscles that they connect to atrophy as well. Research shows that follistatin not only preserves muscle tissue in mice with SMA, but that it also helps to preserve spinal motor neurons by creating a positive feedback loop. In fact, the mice in the study group lived 30% longer than mice who were not given Follistatin because of enhanced muscle and nerve cell survival4.

Another way in which the muscle-building benefits of follistatin may be put to good use in the future is in the treatment of muscular dystrophy and inclusion body myositis. In both diseases, muscle wasting leaves people too frail to walk or even breathe on their own. Even modest improvements in muscle mass and function would be life-changing for those suffering from these diseases5,6.

What is Sermorelin?

By Michael 8 months ago

Sermorelin is the acetate salt of an amidated synthetic 29-amino acid peptide (GRF 1-29 NH 2 ) that corresponds to the amino-terminal segment of the naturally occurring human growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH or GRF) consisting of 44 amino acid residues.

It stimulates the pituitary gland to naturally produce increased amounts of human growth hormone. Sermorelin Acetate is a truncated analog of a growth hormone releasing factor (GRF 1-44) that is naturally produced by the brain to stimulate pituitary production of human growth hormone. The increased volume of human growth hormone (hGH) produced by the pituitary gland causes an increase in the production of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) by the liver and results in the excellent benefits of this peptide.

Sermorelin, Sleep and the Brain

By Logan 8 months ago

Fifteen years ago, orexins were identified as central regulators of energy homeostasis. Research indicates that orexins are key modulators of the sleep-wake cycle and that these neuropeptides also affect feelings of satiety and hunger. Given their role in energy homeostasis, it was hypothesized that orexin levels are likely regulated, at least in part, by the growth hormone axis. Recent research supports this fact and suggests that growth hormone releasing hormone analogues, such as sermorelin, may be effective in treating conditions in which orexin release is dysfunctional (e.g. narcolepsy) [1].

The Research Effects of IGF-1 LR3

By Michael 8 months ago

It is widely acknowledged that IGF1 LR3 is a powerful stimulator of muscle growth. Still, many are unaware of how IGF-1 LR3 exerts this effect on muscle tissue. While IGF-1 LR3 supports the growth and retention of existing muscle tissue, it also promotes the growth of new muscle cells and fibers. The ability of IGF-1 LR3 to additionally stimulate muscle cell proliferation underlies its potent anabolic nature and differentiates it from other muscle-building agents.

IGF-1 Levels and the Aging Process

By Michael 8 months ago

Multiple studies have confirmed that declining levels of IGF-1 play a key role in the negative effects associated with the aging process, including a decrease in lean muscle mass and an increase in adipose (fat) tissue. One particular study conducted on 21 healthy men aged 61 to 81 years only provides further support for the notion that low IGF-1 levels in the body are strongly correlated with an increase in aging’s adverse effects.

IGF1 LR3 Information

By Carl 8 months ago

IGF1 LR3 (insulin-like growth factor-1 Long R3) is a non-glycosylated, recombinant polypeptide chain made up of 83 amino acids. IGF1 LR3 is the recombinant form of human IGF-1, and as such it contains the entire native amino acid sequence but with two major modifications: substitution of arginine (abbreviated R or arg) at position 3 with glutamic acid (abbreviated E or Glu) hence the label R3; and the extension of the N-terminus of the native sequence by a 13 amino-acid peptide hence the label long. The native form of a polypeptide refers to the naturally occurring amino acid sequence and the resultant conformational structure. The molecular weight of IGF1 LR3 as measured by Mass Spectrometry is 9.116 kD (kiloDaltons). A specifically designed protein expression system is utilized in the production of IGF1 LR3 in Escherichia Coli. Thereafter, chromatographic techniques are used to correctly fold and purify the IGF1 LR3 to the highly-active and functional IGF1 LR3 that can bind to human IGF-1R (insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor).

What is Melanotan 2?

By Michael 8 months ago

Melanotan 2 also known as Melanotan II, is a synthetically produced variant of a peptide hormone naturally produced in the body that stimulates melanogenesis, a process responsible for pigmentation of the skin. This peptide hormone, called alpha-Melanocyte stimulating hormone or MSH, activates certain melanocortin receptors in the process of exerting its effects. Indeed, MSH also exerts potent influence over lipid metabolism, appetite, and sexual libido via these melanocortin receptors. As a result, Melanotan 2 has been shown in studies to exhibit appetite suppressant, lipolytic, and libido-enhancing effects in addition to promoting skin tanning. Melanotan 2 has been researched extensively for use in protecting against the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation from sunlight due to Melanotan 2's melanogenesis-stimulating properties. Additionally, Melanotan 2 has been studied at length as a potential remedy for the treatment of sexual dysfunction.

MT-2 (Melanotan-2) and Hunger

By Logan 8 months ago

It is has been known for some time that leptin regulates satiety, but the exact mechanism of regulation has remained elusive. Research has recently revealed that leptin and melanocortins affect the same brain regions associated with hunger and metabolism. This finding has led to new insights into both leptin physiology and the effects of melanocortin analogues like melanotan-2 (MT-2).

The Role of Leptin in Hunger

Leptin, which is made by fat cells, controls both food intake and energy expenditure. A large majority of its effects are mediated through proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the central nervous system. By stimulating POMC neurons, leptin creates feelings of fullness. In some individuals, a decreased sensitivity of POMC neurons to leptin has been linked to an inability to detect satiety[1].

Melanotan II Facts and Myths

By Jonathan 8 months ago

Melanotan II is a synthetic cyclic lactam analog of naturally occurring α-MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone) developed by the University of Arizona and is known to have skin darkening effects as a result of increased production of skin darkening pigments. In clinical trials, Melanotan II has also been found to have aphrodisiac effects.