Adipotide (FTPP) 10mg

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Adipotide (FTPP) 10mg

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Product Usage: THIS PRODUCT IS INTENDED AS A RESEARCH CHEMICAL ONLY. This designation allows the use of research chemicals strictly for in vitro testing and laboratory experimentation only. All product information available on this website is for educational purposes only. Bodily introduction of any kind into humans or animals is strictly forbidden by law. This product should only be handled by licensed, qualified professionals. This product is not a drug, food, or cosmetic and may not be misbranded, misused or mislabled as a drug, food or cosmetic.
  1. What is Adipotide?
  2. Adipotide Structure
  3. Adipotide Research
  4. Future Adipotide Research
  5. Adipotide Resources

What is Adipotide?

Adipotide (a.k.a. FTPP or proapototic peptide) kills fat cells, plain and simple, by targeting the blood supply of those cells. Interestingly, adipotide is able to discern the blood vessels in fat cells from the blood vessels throughout the rest of the body and is therefore highly selective. Research in monkeys shows that adipotide not only causes weight loss, it actually boosts insulin sensitivity and offsets some of the effects of type 2 diabetes.

Adipotide Structure

Adipotide Structure

Sequence: Cys-Lys-Gly-Gly-Arg-Ala-Lys-Asp-Cys—Gly-Gly--(Lys-Leu-Ala-Lys-Leu-Ala-Lys)2
Molecular Formula: C152H252N44O42
Molecular Weight: 2611.41 g/mol


Adipotide Research

1. Adipotide And Fat Loss

Adipotide was developed and placed into phase I clinical trials in 2011 to investigate its ability to kill fat cells. Tests in rhesus monkeys revealed that adipotide causes targeted apoptosis in the blood vessels of white adipose tissue (fat). Without a blood supply, the fat cells simply died. The net result was rapid weight loss, rapid decrease in body mass index (BMI), and improved insulin resistance characteristics. Interestingly, treatment with adipotide and subsequent fat loss not only improved weight, but actually contributed to changes in eating behavior. Monkeys who lost weight with adipotide also showed a decrease in food consumption[1].

Adipotide Causes Fat Loss Adipotide Causes Fat Loss
 

A. Percent weight loss in control groups (blue) versus those treated with adipotide (two differing doses, shown in red)
B. Percent reduction in BMI (control versus treatment)

Source: PubMed

Adipotide Causes Fat Loss

A. Shows the change in insulin requirements (area under the curve) for treated (red) and control (blue) groups. The AUC was calculated from an IVGTT test.
B. Shows the insulinogenic index for before and after in the treatment (red) and control (blue) groups. Treated groups show a dramatic decrease in insulin secretion.
C. Change in biscuit consumption in treated (red) and control (blue) groups.

Source: PubMed

The targeting of adipotide to the blood vessels serving fat cells may be mediated by a protein receptor called prohibitin. Prohibitin is a membrane protein that may only be found in blood vessels serving white fat and in cancer cells. It has been demonstrated that adipotide associates with this protein[2]. If it turns out that prohibitin is found only in fat vasculature and cancer tissue, then adipotide testing will be responsible for identifying a fat-specific target that can be used not just for therapeutic purposes, but for diagnostic purposes as well.

2. Adipotide and Cancer

Prohibitin, the molecule that adipotide likely targets in fat cells, has been associated with certain types of cancer[3]. Cancer cells are known to require substantial blood supplies in order to grow and metastasize. The ability to target prohibitin in cancer cells may provide for advanced therapies that target cancer without harming surrounding tissues.

3. Adipotide and Glucose Tolerance

Glucose tolerance is a term that refers to higher than normal levels of blood sugar. The condition is generally diagnosed with a blood test and confirmed by testing fasting glucose levels or by administering a glucose tolerance test in which a set amount of sugar is consumed and then blood levels of sugar are measured. Glucose tolerance is a proxy measure for diabetes, with increased glucose tolerance indicating a trend toward diabetes.

Treating elevated glucose levels can be done with diet and exercise, but these methods require dedication and motivation. They also take considerable time to have an effect. In general, most people with impaired glucose tolerance go on to develop overt type 2 diabetes and require drugs like metformin and, in some cases, insulin. Research into adipotide has revealed that the peptide produces rapid and weight-independent improvement in glucose tolerance[4]. The latter part is critical, because it indicates that a reduction in white fat by adipotide is effective in reducing glucose tolerance regardless of the impact on weight. In other words, it is the fat loss that is important, not the weight loss. These findings not only open the pathway for developing new treatments for pre-diabetes and diabetes, they help to clarify and explain the mechanisms that lead to diabetes in the first place.

There is some argument as to whether adipotide directly causes fat loss or simply decreases food intake which indirectly leads to fat loss[4]. It is likely that adipotide directly causes fat loss. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that the peptide causes changes in fat cell density without causing weight loss and affects glucose tolerance without causing weight loss.


Future Adipotide Research

The primary area of adipotide research is in fat loss and diabetes. The peptide targets specific cells in the blood vessels that supply fat tissue, causing those blood vessels to die and, as a result, causing the fat cells they supply to die. Adipotide is an anti-angiogenic peptide, which means it targets blood vessels. Anti-angiogenic molecules are of keen interest right now in the treatment of cancer. There is limited, but promising research, on the role of adipotide in cancer.


About The Author

The above literature was researched, edited and organized by Dr. L. Edmiston, M.D. Dr. L. Edmiston holds a doctorate degree from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and a B.S. in molecular biology.

Kirstin Barnhart, MD, lead author of “A peptidomimetic targeting white fat causes weight loss and improved insulin resistance in obese monkeys,” is Associate Director, Senior Pathologist at AbbVie - a leading pharmaceutical research and development company. Dr. Barnhart led a study where the treatment with adipotide induced targeted apoptosis within blood vessels of white adipose tissue and resulted in rapid weight loss and improved insulin resistance in obese monkeys. Magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry confirmed a marked reduction in white adipose tissue.

Kirstin Barnhart, MD is being referenced as one of the leading scientists involved in the research and development of Adipotide. In no way is this doctor/scientist endorsing or advocating the purchase, sale, or use of this product for any reason. There is no affiliation or relationship, implied or otherwise, between Peptide Sciences and this doctor. The purpose of citing the doctor is to acknowledge, recognize, and credit the exhaustive research and development efforts conducted by the scientists studying this peptide. Dr. Barnhart is listed in [6] under the referenced citations.


Referenced Citations

  • [1] K. F. Barnhart et al., “A peptidomimetic targeting white fat causes weight loss and improved insulin resistance in obese monkeys,” Sci. Transl. Med., vol. 3, no. 108, p. 108ra112, Nov. 2011. [PubMed]
  • [2] M. G. Kolonin, P. K. Saha, L. Chan, R. Pasqualini, and W. Arap, “Reversal of obesity by targeted ablation of adipose tissue,” Nat. Med., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 625–632, Jun. 2004. [PubMed]
  • [3] F. I. Staquicini et al., “Vascular ligand-receptor mapping by direct combinatorial selection in cancer patients,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., vol. 108, no. 46, pp. 18637–18642, Nov. 2011. [PubMed]
  • [4] D.-H. Kim et al., “Rapid and weight-independent improvement of glucose tolerance induced by a peptide designed to elicit apoptosis in adipose tissue endothelium,” Diabetes, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 2299–2310, Sep. 2012. [PubMed]
  • [5] L. Criscione, “Comment on ‘a peptidomimetic targeting white fat causes weight loss and improved insulin resistance in obese monkeys,’” Sci. Transl. Med., vol. 4, no. 131, pp. 131le2; author reply 131lr2, Apr. 2012. [PubMed]
  • [6] Barnhart KF, Christianson DR, Hanley PW, et al. A peptidomimetic targeting white fat causes weight loss and improved insulin resistance in obese monkeys. Sci Transl Med. 2011;3(108):108ra112. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3002621 [PMC]

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The products offered on this website are furnished for in-vitro studies only. In-vitro studies (Latin: in glass) are performed outside of the body.  These products are not medicines or drugs and have not been approved by the FDA to prevent, treat or cure any medical condition, ailment or disease.  Bodily introduction of any kind into humans or animals is strictly forbidden by law.